Potatoes are among the most popular vegetables in the world. It is the number 1 vegetable in America, as its popularity has increased a lot in the past years, so you can hardly find a restaurant that does not serve potatoes, so it has become a common sign among most types of restaurants and meals.
Some people like to grow potatoes and enjoy this, which is a really good thing. Growing potatoes from a potato is pretty popular. The taste and texture of the potatoes that farmers grow locally on their land are much better than the taste and texture of the potatoes sold in the market that are grown on large farms.
But there are many things that new farmers are looking for about planting potatoes including the duration, and the factors affecting their growth.
Do not worry, new farmer, we’ve got your back. We have conducted our comprehensive research to bring you all the important information about potato cultivation, the period of its growth, and everything related to it, let’s go deeper and learn more.
How Long Does it Take to Grow a Potato from a Potato?
Generally, Potatoes takes around 65 to 120 days to grow depending on it types. There are many factors that control the duration of potato growth, such as the type of potato planted, soil, and environmental factors. but in general, There are three main types of potatoes according to the period of their growth: The first season, mid-season, and late season.
Early potatoes or first-season potatoes grow quickly as they will be ready to harvest only 65 to 85 days after planting.
Mid-season varieties are the most common potato varieties. They will be ready to harvest within 3 months between 95 and 110 days.
Some types are specialty potatoes and large potatoes. It will take longer to grow and harvest at the end of the season. Harvest season can take 4 months (110-120 days).
Factors Affecting How Long It Takes To Grow A Potato From A Potato
The factors that affect the growth of potatoes are divided into:
- Factors specific to the potato variety
- environmental factors
- Soil factors
- Seed factors
- Disease factors
Let us explain each of these factors more clearly
1. Factors Specific To The Potato Variety
There are hundreds of varieties of potatoes available through garden centers and seed markets. They differ in the length of the growing season, amount of space they need, disease resistance, and culinary uses (low starch vs. high starch). So you should have a general idea of what you want from potatoes. and since we’re talking about how long a potato grows and the factors that affect it. We will discuss the types of potatoes in terms of the period of growth of each type:
- Irish potatoes – 80 days.
- Norland red potatoes – 85 days.
- Purple Majesty potatoes – 85 days.
- Kennebec potatoes – 90 days.
- Red Pontiac potatoes – 90 days.
- Austrian crescent potato – 90 days.
- Russet potatoes – 95 days.
- Yukon gold potatoes – 100 days.
- AmaRosa fingerling potatoes – 100 days.
Late-Season Potato Varieties
- French fingerling potatoes – 105 days.
- Elba potatoes – 110 days.
- Pinto gold potatoes – 110 days.
- Russian banana potatoes – 110 days.
- German butterball potatoes – 125 days.
2. Environmental Factors
Environmental conditions play a major role in potato growth. Potatoes usually grow efficiently in temperate climates, so the ideal time to plant them is in late winter or early spring to avoid frost, as frost may slow potato growth or stop it at times. Potatoes also need air and sun, so the soil must be in good air condition and exposed to the sun. Anaerobic conditions slow down potato growth very much.
3. Soil Factors
Soil is a major factor in the growth of potatoes, as it is like the mother’s womb for the fetus, so while the fetus needs specific conditions for growth, the potato needs soil with specific characteristics to grow well.
The soil must be rich in organic matter and deep, as it is known that the fruits of potatoes grow downwards and are buried in the soil. The soil must also be well drained to prevent the accumulation of water in the soil. Also, the soil pH must be taken into account.
Potatoes need an acidic soil with pH numbers of 4.8 and 5.5. Potato growth slows when planted in dry, very wet, or cool soil. The soil should be slightly wet and not soaked with water, as in other plants, excess moisture leads to the rotting of potato fruits. Also, dry soil leads to the cessation of tuber growth.
4. Seed Factors
Potatoes do not grow from small seeds like other types of vegetables and fruits, but they grow from the fruits and pieces of potatoes.
Buy seed potatoes from a garden supply store. It is not possible to use regular potatoes that you buy from the market. Regular potatoes are often treated with pesticides to prevent the growth of buds above the potato fruits, which is the opposite of the potato growth process completely.
The growth of potatoes is based mainly on the growth of buds and their transformation into stems and leaves to form a complete plant. order seed potatoes from a gardening catalog or store. You will find many types and shapes of potato seeds, Russet, Yukon, Fingerlings, and so on.
If the potatoes are small in size, they can be planted completely. But large potatoes should be cut in half or into pieces about 1.5 cm wide. In the event of cutting potatoes, you must return the cut potatoes to the warm place from which you took them and leave them for an additional 2-3 days before planting, and this is a very important step. Keep potato seeds away from the cold as the seeds will be damaged by low storage temperatures or during transportation.
5. Disease Factors
Potato infection with diseases reduces its growth and may stop its growth completely if it is not treated. There are many diseases that potatoes are susceptible to. Late blight seed infection, Fusarium dry rot seed infection, Pythium leak, (pink rot seed infection), Soft rot (blackleg seed infection), Rhizoctonia infecting emerging sprouts, Black Dot eye infection, High Mosaic Virus infection.
The Importance Of Monitoring The Growth Of The Potato Plant
The growth of potato plants should be monitored to determine the best time for harvesting. bearing in mind that potato flavor improves in dark and deep conditions. So you have to backfill more soil when the potatoes are growing above the surface of the soil so that only the top leaves stick out from the ground.
The exposure of potato fruits to sunlight leads to the production of a chemical called solanine (a toxic substance that gives a bitter taste to potatoes) and turns the potato fruits green.
Notice the plants when their leaves turn yellow and begin to wither, as this indicates that their harvest date is approaching. You can harvest young, thin-skinned potatoes, 2 to 3 weeks after flowering has stopped. Large, mature potatoes are harvested about 2 to 3 weeks after the foliage has died back. Dig gently, being careful not to puncture or cut the tubers, or bruise the potato skin.
Tips For How To Speed Up The Growth Of Potatoes
The factors accelerating the growth of potatoes are mostly similar to many of the ideal potato growth factors. because the goal in both cases is the same, which is to obtain good potatoes at an ideal time. Here are these tips to help you grow your potatoes faster.
1. Choose The Right Time
In the beginning, you have to choose a good time in which potatoes thrive. As we mentioned, potatoes do not like frost, so try to delay planting them until two weeks after the last frost.
Cultivation in frost is not good at all, as it may delay or stop its growth, while potato tubers grow better in sunny weather.
So keep an eye on the soil moisture. If spring is still too wet, don’t plant them at that time. It’s recommended to wait a few weeks for the soil to become drier because wet and cold soil causes the tubers to rot. You can plant your tubers once the soil temperature rises to 45 degrees Fahrenheit, as this is an ideal temperature and potatoes grow well and quickly.
2. Small Pieces
Cutting potatoes into small pieces helps to speed up their growth process and not increase the number of fruits, as some believe. Each piece or fruit of potatoes produces one potato plant.
Each potato plant will produce about 5-10 potatoes when grown under ideal conditions. However, cutting potatoes requires certain precautions so as not to damage the fruits.
Freshly cut potatoes may become dehydrated or develop a disease, which hinders their growth. Freshly cut potatoes need to be treated by leaving them in a warm place for 3 days before placing them in the soil.
If necessary, you will put them directly in the soil. They will require soil with a high percentage of oxygen and high humidity, and a temperature between 50 and 65 degrees.
Related Article: How Many Potatoes Does It Take To Grow Potatoes In A Potato Bag?
3. Soil Fertilization
They thrive and grow better and faster in nutrient-rich soil with compost. You can use compost or commercial compost. You can buy a balanced commercial fertilizer, which is very available in the garden supplies store.
You can use superphosphate fertilizer, Bonimil, or any other balanced type. However, some things must be taken into account when applying fertilizers.
The value of soil fertility must be taken into account, which must be at certain rates. Excess nitrogen fertilization delays the ripening of potatoes. and an excess of potassium significantly hinders the absorption of magnesium from the soil and reduces the hardness of potatoes as it reduces their specific gravity.
Therefore, it is recommended to add magnesium when its levels in the soil are low or when potassium levels are excessively high in the soil.
Can You Grow Potatoes From Store-Bought Potatoes?
No, because the potatoes that you buy from the store are treated with chemicals to prevent the growth of sprouts and prevent diseases, so they are not suitable for cultivation, even if sprouts and eyes appear on them, the possibility of them growing as full plants will be weak because of the chemicals.
How Do You Grow Potatoes From Old Potatoes?
If the potatoes are from the market, they are not suitable. You have to buy potato seeds from the garden and seed store, then prepare a planting bag and put about 4 cm of wet soil in it. then put the potato grains and then cover them with an additional 3 cm of soil, and put the bag in a sunny place.
Watch the soil and irrigate it with water when you find the topsoil dry. When the plants are too big for the bag, Open it and let the potato plant grow freely. You can harvest the potatoes when the leaves turn yellow.
Also, if you’re interested in trying other methods, you can check our guide to growing red potatoes in water!
What Month Do You Plant Potatoes?
Potatoes are often planted in late winter and early spring, beginning in March, April, and May. But if the weather is warm, they can be planted before that, as they can be planted in January and February in warm regions.
Can I Cut A Potato In Half And Plant It?
Yes, and it is preferable in the case of large potatoes, as it accelerates its growth rate.
How Many Potatoes Will Grow From One Potato?
Each potato will produce one plant, the plant will produce about 5 to 10 potatoes.